Konfliktåret 1920

Konfliktåret 1920 er en oversikt over hendelser som har med voldelige konflikter i vid forstand å gjøre som kriger, revolusjoner og opprør i 1920.

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2016 Philadelphia Freedoms season

The 2016 Philadelphia Freedoms season was the 16th season of the franchise (in its current incarnation) in World TeamTennis (WTT).

The Freedoms finished fourth in WTT, narrowly losing a standings tiebreaker for third place, with a record of 7 wins and 5 losses and missed the postseason for the first time since 2013. The Freedoms were led by WTT Male Rookie of the Year Fabrice Martin.

At the WTT Draft on March 25, 2016, the Freedoms selected Caroline Wozniacki with the first pick in the marquee player portion of the draft. They passed on making a second-round marquee selection. In the roster portion of the draft, the Freedoms did not protect any players from their 2015 squad including 2014 WTT Male Most Valuable Player Marcelo Melo. They selected Lukáš Lacko, Daria Kasatkina, Fabrice Martin and Naomi Broady as roster players in the first four rounds. In addition to Melo, the Freedoms left Taylor Townsend, Robby Ginepri, Liezel Huber, Asia Muhammad, Abigail Spears and Coco Vandeweghe unprotected runners belt pack. In the fifth round, the Freedoms selected roster-exempt player Donald Young.

On July 6, 2016, the Freedoms announced they had signed Samantha Crawford to replace Daria Kasatkina, who had been selected to represent Russia at the 2016 Summer Olympics.

The Freedoms opened their season on July 31, 2016, with a 23–17 road win against the Springfield Lasers. Lukáš Lacko and Fabrice Martin won the opening set of men’s doubles, 5–3. After the Lasers won the second and third sets in tiebreakers to tie the match at 13 all, Naomi Broady and Samantha Crawford dominated all three of their service games, never facing a break point, while converting two breaks against Michaëlla Krajicek and Pauline Parmentier for a 5–1 women’s doubles set win that gave the Freedoms an 18–14 lead. Broady and Martin closed out the victory by taking the mixed doubles set, 5–3.

The following evening, the Freedoms were in New York City for a match with the New York Empire. After dropping the opening set, the Freedoms won the next three sets to take command of the match. Caroline Wozniacki and Broady won a tiebreaker in women’s doubles after trading breaks with Christina McHale and María Irigoyen. Broady and Martin took the third set of mixed doubles, 5–3. Wozniacki dominated McHale in the fourth set of women’s singles, 5–0, winning 20 of the 25 points played, to give the Freedoms a 17–12 lead. After the teams traded breaks in the final set of men’s doubles, Guido Pella and Neal Skupski won a tiebreaker that forced extended play with the Freedoms leading 21–17. Pella and Skupski broke Lacko and Martin in the first game of extended play and held serve in the second to cut the Freedoms’ lead to 21–19. However, Lacko and Martin held serve in the third game to close out a 22–19 victory.

After two road wins to start their season, the Freedoms played their home opener against the Lasers on August 2, 2016, which included an Olympic send-off party for Wozniacki. She was selected as Denmark’s flag bearer for the opening ceremony. The Freedoms found themselves behind glass drinking bottle with caps, 10–5, early in the match after the Lasers won the first two sets. Lacko and Martin held all four of their service games and converted a break point for a 5–2 set win in the third set of men’s doubles. Wozniacki followed with a 5–1 set win in women’s singles that gave the Freedoms a 15–13 lead. Broady and Martin took a 5–3 set win in mixed doubles to seal a 20–16 win.

The following evening, the Freedoms found themselves on the road against the five-time defending WTT champion Washington Kastles. Both teams entered the match with 3 wins and 0 losses. Lacko and Martin secured an early break to take a 3–1 lead in the opening set of men’s doubles. Leander Paes and John-Patrick Smith broke back and tied the set at 3 all. But Lacko and Martin managed another break and took the set, 5–3. Broady and Martin took the second set of mixed doubles in a tiebreaker. Lacko won the men’s singles set, 5–3, to give the Freedoms a 15–10 halftime lead. After dropping the women’s doubles set, the Freedoms handed an 18–15 lead to Broady who faced Madison Brengle in the final set of women’s singles. Broady successfully defended the only break point she faced in her four service games and converted a break against Brengle’s serve to take the set, 5–3, and secure a 23–18 victory for the Freedoms. Brengle, who had only played singles this season before the start of play, entered the match having won all three of her sets by a combined score a 15–2. The win gave the Freedoms 4 wins and 0 losses and left them as the only undefeated team in WTT.

The Freedoms returned home atop the WTT standings to face the winless Springfield Lasers, a team they had already beaten twice, on August 4, 2016. The Lasers won four of the five sets, two in tiebreakers, and went on to a 24–19 victory that handed the Freedom their first loss of the season. Two nights later, in the back end of a home-and-home series, the Lasers won three of the five sets played and defeated the Freedoms again, 23–18 in extended play.

The Freedoms’ West Coast trip proved to be a struggle, as they lost to both the Orange County Breakers and the San Diego Aviators and saw their record drop to 4 wins and 4 losses.

On August 9, 2016, the Freedoms announced they had re-signed Coco Vandeweghe as a wildcard player.

The Freedoms took their four-match losing streak home where they met the New York Empire on August 10, 2016. The match opened with Donald Young and Fabrice Martin facing Andy Roddick and Neal Skupski. Both teams held three service games and broke once to send the set to a tiebreaker. Empire coach Patrick McEnroe substituted 2016 Wimbledon hero Marcus Willis for Skupski in the tiebreaker, but the Freedoms prevailed. After Christina McHale took the first three games of the women’s singles set from Naomi Broady, the Freedoms substituted Samantha Crawford for Broady. McHale broke Crawford in her service game and took the set, 5–0, to give the Empire a 9–5 lead. The Freedoms regained the lead at 10–9, when Martin and Broady took the mixed doubles set, 5–0, from Skupski and McHale, who had substituted for María Irigoyen, after the Empire fell behind, 0–3. McHale and Irigoyen won 21 of the 32 points played against Broady and Crawford in the women’s doubles set for a 5–1 victory that gave the Empire a 14–11 lead. In the final set, Young held his four service games and broke Roddick once for a 5–2 men’s singles set win that tied the match at 16 all and sent it to a super tiebreaker. Young took the super tiebreaker, 7–3, to give the Freedoms a 17–16 victory and put an end to their losing streak.

The following evening, the Freedoms met the Washington Kastles at home in an atmosphere quite different from the teams’ previous encounter. Just eight days earlier, the Freedoms prevailed in a matchup of WTT’s only two undefeated teams. Now the Freedoms were 5–4, and the Kastles were 4–5 and facing elimination. The five-time defending WTT champions won the first three sets to gain a 15–9 lead before exacting their revenge for the home loss they suffered at the hands of the Freedoms. The 24–18 Kastles victory gave both teams 5 wins and 5 losses and put them both on the brink of elimination.

On August 12, 2016, the Freedoms hosted the Orange County Breakers, who entered the match with 8 wins and 2 losses and having already clinched a spot in the WTT Finals. Young and Martin led the Freedoms by opening the match with a 5–2 set win in men’s doubles. Martin then teamed with Broady to take the third set of mixed doubles in a tiebreaker and give the Freedoms a 13–11 lead at halftime. Young closed out a 21–18 victory by taking the final set of men’s singles, 5–2, over Dennis Novikov. The set was much closer than it might appear. Young successfully defended all seven break points he faced while converting one of on two break-point opportunities he had. Total points won in the set favored Young by only 21–20. Despite winning to stave off elimination, the Freedoms postseason aspirations vanished, when the San Diego Aviators defeated the Empire, 24–16, to clinch the second spot in the WTT Finals.

A win in the season’s final match gave the Freedoms a record of 7 wins and 5 losses, identical to that of the Kastles. Since the teams split their two regular-season meetings, the tie for third place in the standings was broken based on games won in those head-to-head matches, which favored the Kastles, 42–41.

Fabrice Martin was named 2016 WTT Male Rookie of the Year. Martin was tied for first in the league with teammate Naomi Broady in winning percentage in mixed doubles and was also fourth in men’s doubles.

With the California Dream franchise terminated by WTT, the Freedoms were the only returning conference championship loser from 2015, and selected third from the bottom (fourth) in each round of the draft. WTT conducted its 2016 Draft on March 25, in Key Biscayne, Florida. The selections made by the Freedoms are shown in the table below.

References:

Notes:

Players are listed in order of their game-winning percentage provided they played in at least 40% of the Freedoms’ games in that event, which is the WTT minimum for qualification for league leaders in individual statistical categories.

Fabrice Martin was named 2016 WTT Male Rookie of the Year. Martin was tied for first in the league with teammate Naomi Broady in winning percentage in mixed doubles and was also fourth in men’s doubles.

Lukáš Lacko was fifth in WTT in winning percentage in men’s doubles.

Banū Hashim

Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) er en klan indenfor stammen Quraysh. Klanen har sit navn fra grundlæggeren Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, som var en lederfigur indenfor Quraysh. Hashim fik flere sønner, hvoraf den ene, Abd Al-Muttalib, var profeten Muhammads farfar. Dermed er Muhammad en del af Banu Hashim klanen.

Abd Al-Muttalib fik flere sønner running bands for phones, hvoraf 3 er meget vigtige: Abd Allah (Muhammads fader), Abu Talib (overtog lederskabet af Quraysh efter faderen) og Abbas. Disses efterkommere delte sig i to meget betydningfulde og rivaliserende subklaner i kølvandet på islams oprettelse. Efterkommerne af Abd Allah (og dermed profeten Muhammad) Ahlul Bayt og efterkommerne af Abbas, som oprettede Abbaside-kalifatet. Alt imens Abu Talibs efterkommere i større omfang har støttet Ahlul Bayt.

Samlet set har Banu Hashim ligeledes haft et langt fjendskab med quraysh-klanen Banu Umayya, som er efterkommere af Hashims bror, Abd Shams.

Hasjimitterne fører deres slægt tilbage til Hāšim ibn ʿAbd Manāf (død 510 e.Kr.), oldefaren til den islamske profeten Muḥammad, selv om hasjimitter i dag ofte defineres som efterkommerne af profetens datter Fāṭimah. Hasjimitternes tidlige historie efter Muḥammad var præget af deres lange kamp mod umayyaderne om hvem, som skulle være kalif, eller Muḥammads efterfølger. Umayyaderne tilhørte samme stamme som hasjimitterne, men de var forskellige klaner. Efter, at umayyaderne blev styrtet efter slaget ved Zab i 750, hævdede de efterfølgende abbasider, at de repræsenterede hasjimitterne, da de hævdede at nedstamme fra al-ʿAbbas ibn ʿAbd al-Muttalib, en onkel af Muḥammad. Hasjimitterne var på den tid den mægtigste klan i Makkah. Muḥammads far var død før, han blev født, og morderen døde, mens han endnu var ung, så Muḥammad blev opdraget af hasjiimitternes leder Abū Tālib ibn ʿAbd al-Muttalib.

Fra det tiende århundrede var šarīf en af Makkah og byens ʾamīr traditionelt en hasjimit. Før 1. verdenskrig regerede šarīf Ḥusayn bin ʿAlī fra den hasjimitiske Ḏawu-ʾAwn-klanen over Hijaz på vegne af den osmanniske sultan. Da havde der en tid været tradition for, at den osmanniske regering udnævnte ʾamīren af Makkah blandt en udvalgt gruppe afkandidater.

I 1908 blev Ḥusayn bin ʿAlī udnævnt til ʾamīr af Makkah, men han kom ind i en stadig større konflikt med Ungtyrkerne, som kontrollerede hovedstaden Istanbul, mens han forsøgte at sikre sin families stilling som arvelige ʾamīrer. I 1916 startede han araberopstanden mod det osmanniske styre. Efter, at det osmanniske rige var brudt sammen, herskede Ḥusayn over det uafhængige kongedømme Hijaz, som han med støtte fra det britiske Foreign and Commonwealth Office blev erklæret konge over. Hans medspillere er blevet kaldt šarīfiere og det šarīfiske parti.

Ḥusayn blev ved sin død i 1924 efterfulgt som konge af Hijaz af den ældste af sine fem sønner, ʿAlī. Hasjimitternes største rival med hensyn til kontrollen over Den arabiske halvø var suʿūdierne fra højlandet i Naǧd, som under kong Ibn Suʿūd i 1925 annekterede Hijaz, hvor Ibn Suʿūds søn Fayṣal ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl Suʿūd blev gjort til guvernør. I 1932 blev kongedømmerne Naǧd og Hijaz endelig slået sammen til én stat, Saudi-Arabien.

De allierede havde lovet at støtte arabisk uafhængige mod, at araberne kæmpede mod osmannerne under 1. verdenskrig, men disse løfter blev tilsidesat til fordel for britiske og franske interesser i Mellemøsten. I tråd med den måde, som araberne havde tolket sin aftale med de allierede på, blev Det arabiske kongedømme Syrien, den første moderne arabiske stat i Mellemøsten, oprettet i 1920 med Fayṣal ibn Ḥusayn, šarīf Ḥusayn tredje søn og en vigtig helt fra det arabiske oprør, som konge. Dette rige eksisterede kun et par måneder, da det blev erobret af Frankrig under den fransk-syriske krig.

Fayṣal blev udvist fra Syrien af franskmændene og flyttede til Storbritannien. Briterne mente, at han var en god kandidat til at lede deres mandat i Irak. I 1932 blev mandatet formelt uafhængigt som Kongeriget Irak, men forblev under stærk britisk indflydelse og fortsat okkupation. Fayṣal og hans efterkommere Ġāzī og Fayṣal 2. herskede over Irak som konger frem til 14. juli-revolutionen i 1958, hvor de revolutionære, ledede af ʿAbd al-Karīm Qāsim, styrtede kongedømmet og gjorde Irak til en republik. Fayṣal 2. blev dræbt under revolutionen, men hans grandonkel Zayd ibn Ḥusayn, Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlīs fjerde søn, flygtede fra landet og krævede stillingen som Iraks retmæssige konge.

Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlīs anden søn var ʿAbd Allāh, en anden vigtig leder under araberopstanden. Han blev indsat af briterne som ʿamīr for deres mandat Transjordan, og fra 1946 til sin død i 1951 var han konge af det uafhængige hasjimitiske kongedømme Jordan tenderizers in baking. ʿAbd Allāh 1. blev efterfulgt som konge af Ṭalāl runners belt pack, Ḥusayn og ʿAbd Allāh 2., som i dag er Jordans hasjimitiske konge.

I dag har hasjimitterne spredt sig til mange områder, som er blevet styret af muslimer, således Irak, Pakistan, Indien, Libanon, Irak, Jordan, Egypten, Yemen, Djibouti, Sudan og Tyrkiet. De fleste hasjimitter i disse landene har titlen sayyid. Indtil nu er der ikke gjort noget forsøg på at registrere medlemmerne af Banū Hāšim rundt omkring i verden. Marokkos herskerfamilie hævder også at nedstamme fra ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, men anvender ikke hasjimit som sit dynastiske navn.

Road Rash 3: Tour de Force

Road Rash 3: Tour De Force (рус. Дорожное безумие 3) — видеоигра в жанре гонок на выживание, третья часть в серии. На сей раз игра разработана компанией Monkey Do Productions, а Electronic Arts занимались издательством игры. Игра вышла в 1995 год на консоли Sega Mega Drive shaver ratings.

Незаконные гонки проходят в Великобритании, Германии, Италии, Бразилии, Кении, Австралии и Японии.

Смысл игры состоит в том runners belt pack, что нужно доехать до финиша в тройке лидеров, на огромной скорости пробиваясь через соперников, уворачиваясь от автомобилей и препятствий на дороге, и при этом не разбить мотоцикл и не попасться полиции. В случае разбития мотоцикла или поимки полицией придётся заплатить за ремонт либо штраф, а если денег недостаточно — будет предложен контракт, по которому в следующей гонке требуется сбить с мотоцикла определённого гонщика. При этом чем выше финишная позиция, тем больше игровых денег для покупок и апгрейдов игрок получает customizable soccer socks.

На первом уровне доступен простой мотоцикл и 1000$, которые можно потратить на апгрейд (опции апгрейда включают в себя улучшение двигателя, покрышек, подвески и защиты), а можно приберечь для покупки более мощного мотоцикла в дальнейшем. Мотоциклы в магазине разделены на 3 категории: «крысиные мотоциклы» (Rat bikes), «спортивные» (Sport bikes) и «супер-байки» (Super bikes). В каждой категории доступно 5 мотоциклов needle meat tenderizer, отличающихся максимальной скоростью, манёвренностью и пр. Некоторые супер-байки имеют нитро-ускорители, активирующиеся кратким двойным нажатием на кнопку газа на геймпаде. В игре, также, присутствует скрытый черный мотоцикл с максимальными характеристиками, который можно получить только вводом пароля: 15S9 PU03.

Отличие игры от своего предшественника в улучшенной детализации игровой среды и в том, что выхваченное во время драки оружие остаётся с игроком и на последующих трассах. В распоряжении игрока дубинка (club), газовый балончик (mace), монтировка (crowbar), цепь (chain), нунчаки (nunchucks), машинное масло (oil cans) и шокер (cattle prod). Оружие требуется отнимать у других гонщиков. Его можно переключать, нажимая на геймпаде кнопку «Start» при нажатой кнопке «вверх», это работает и в режиме паузы (версия для Mega Drive 2). Кроме этого, доступен пинок ногой.

Полицейские патрули, помимо мотоциклов и автомашин, имеют в распоряжении вертолёт, в случае необходимости опускающийся игроку на голову.

Alessandro Belometti

Alessandro Belometti (* 22 discount goalkeeper gloves. Oktober 1973 in Legnano) ist ein italienischer Endurosportler und Motocrosser. Er war Mitglied der siegreichen italienischen Trophy-Mannschaft bei den Internationalen Sechstagefahrten 2005 und 2007.

Seine ersten Erfolge feierte Belometti als regionaler Meister im Minicross. 1987 gewann er die Trofeo Nord Italia im Motocross. 1989 wurde er italienischer Jugend-Motocross-Meister in der Klasse bis 80 cm³. 1991 folgte der Titel in der italienischen Jugendmeisterschaft in der Klasse bis 125 cm³.

Ab 1993 startete Belometti in der Motocross-Weltmeisterschaft. Er erreichte in der Klasse bis 125 cm³ einen 34. Platz. Im folgenden Jahr kam er auf den 15. Platz und 1995 wurde er 23. 1996 wurde er mit einer Honda Siebenter in der Weltmeisterschaft und 1997 kam er mit einer Kawasaki auf den elften Platz.

1998 wurde er Meister in der offenen italienischen Meisterschaft und gewann die Trofeo Supercampione. In der Weltmeisterschaft wurde er mit einer Yamaha Achter in der 125 cm³-Klasse. Im folgenden Jahr wurde er italienischer Vizemeister und Zweiter bei der Trofeo Supercampione. In der Motocross-Weltmeisterschaft wechselte er in die Klasse bis 250 cm³. Mit Yamaha wurde belegte er am Ende einen zehnten Platz top electric shavers. Im Jahr 2000 belegte er in der Tricolore-Meisterschaft einen vierten Platz und wurde mit einer Kawasaki in der Weltmeisterschaft in der Klasse bis 250 cm³ Zwölfter runners belt pack. 2001 wurde er Meister in der Tricolore-Meisterschaft in der Klasse bis 125 cm³ sowie Zweiter bei der Trofeo Supercampione. In der Weltmeisterschaft wechselt er wieder in Klasse bis 125 cm³ und wird mit einer Yamaha Elfter. 2002 wechselt er zu VOR und wird Sechster in der offenen italienischen Meisterschaft und in der Weltmeisterschaft 28. in der Klasse bis 500 cm³. 2003 fährt er wieder in der Klasse bis 125 cm³. In der italienischen Meisterschaft wird er Vierter und in der Seniorenklasse Zweiter.

2004 wechselt er vom Motocross zum Endurosport. In der Enduro-Weltmeisterschaft wird er in der Klasse E1 Sechster und in der italienischen Meisterschaft Zweiter in der Klasse bis 125 cm³. 2005 wird er in dieser Klasse italienischer Meister. In der Weltmeisterschaft wird er in der Klasse E1 Dritter. Bei der Internationalen Sechstagefahrt in der Slowakei ist der Mitglied der siegreichen Trophy-Nationalmannschaft.

2006 wird er italienischer Meister in der Klasse E1 in der Kategorie „Hard Race“. In der Gesamtwertung der Meisterschaft wird er in der Klasse bis 250 cm³-Viertakt Zweiter und erreicht einen vierten Platz in der Wertung aller Klassen. In der Weltmeisterschaft wird er Vierter in der Klasse E1. 2007 kann er seinen Titel in der Kategorie „Hard Race“ verteidigen. In der Meisterschaft wird er Dritter in der Klasse bis 250 cm³-Viertakt. Bei der Internationalen Sechstagefahrt in Chile ist er Kapitän der siegreichen Trophy-Nationalmannschaft.

Auch 2008 kann er den Titel in der Kategorie „Hard Race“ erneut gewinnen. In der Klasse bis 250 cm³-Zweitakt gewinnt er die italienische Meisterschaft cheap white socks. In der Weltmeisterschaft erringt er einen dritten Platz in der Klasse E2. Bei der internationalen Sechstagefahrt gewinnt er in der Klasse E1 und wird mit der italienischen Nationalmannschaft Zweiter. 2009 gewinnt er die italienische Meisterschaft in der Klasse bis 250 cm³-Zweitakt. In der Weltmeisterschaft wird er Siebenter in der Klasse E2. Bei der Sechstagefahrt in Portugal ist er wiederum Kapitän und belegt mit der Mannschaft einen zweiten Platz.

Im Jahr 2010 fährt Belometti nur noch in der italienischen Enduromeisterschaft. In der Weltmeisterschaft ist er als Betreuer unterwegs.

Eugenio Vegas Latapie

Eugenio Vegas Latapie (1907–1985) was a Spanish monarchist writer, activist and conspirator who was noted for the extremism of his monarchist beliefs liverpool football shirt. A native of Irun, he was a leading member of the Acción Española group. In his later years, Vegas Latapié served as Secretary and principal advisor to Don Juan de Borbón, father of the future king Juan Carlos, whose early education he oversaw as well.

A founder member of Acción Española, Vegas Latapié was noted for his extreme monarchism to the point that he lost faith variously in Alfonso XIII, his son Juan and grandson Juan Carlos, to whom he was a tutor, as he felt that they were not monarchist enough. A hard-line supporter of the Roman Catholic Church he nonetheless was prepared to criticise the Papacy for not reaching his own standards, notably in a series of articles published in the Acción Española journal in 1931 and 1932 in which he attacked the supposedly conciliatory attitude towards the republicans in France.

Following the assassination of José Calvo Sotelo in 1936 Vegas Latapié and his brother Pepe instigated a plot to murder Manuel Azaña in a revenge attack, although the plan was scuppered when they took it to their allies in the army as they were already in an advanced stage of planning the uprising that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. His idea rejected, Vegas Latapié then decided to launch a suicide attack on the Congress of Deputies by entering the building whilst carrying a supply of mustard gas although this plan too was abandoned as he feared incriminating his brother Florentino who worked for the only producer of the gas in Spain.

Vegas Latapié had been close to the Falange and had exhorted them to greater violence in the early days of the Spanish Civil War. Alongside this, however, he had a fraught relationship with José Antonio Primo de Rivera as he did not approve of the Falangist leader’s high living private life. The two were estranged not long before Primo de Rivera’s death when Vegas Latapie attacked his “social frivolity” whilst Falangists were being killed.

He sat on the National Council of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista until 4 March 1938 when Francisco Franco, seeking to remove potential troublemakers, removed the abrasive and uncompromising Vegas Latapie from his position. The action led to a freezing of relations between Franco and Acción Española as many activists saw this as a slight on their leader and so ended co-operation. Deprived of his office he entered into a series of conspiracies against Franco with Juan Antonio Ansaldo although, as neither man was particularly popular or had good contacts, these came to nothing. He became a public critic of the Franco regime to such an extent that he was forced into exile in Switzerland for a time in June 1942.

In 1946 he formed part of a coterie of advisors around Don Juan, which included the likes of Pedro Sainz Rodríguez, José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, Julio López-Oliván and General Antonio Aranda, all of whom were involved in trying to secure restoration for the prospective king. Within this group Vegas Latapie and Sainz Rodríguez were noted to be the most extreme and anti-democratic members.

His autobiography Memorias politicas does meat tenderizer work. El suicidio de la monarquia y la Segunda Republica appeared in 1983 and revealed his disillusionment with his political career runners belt pack.